The term dyslexia comes from two Greek words “dys” meaning “difficulty” and “lexia” meaning “language”. It was first coined in 1887 by Rudolf Belin in Germany to describe the inability to read.
9 years later Dr Pringle Morgan described the condition in the British Medical Journal and this is more or less the definition still used today:
“an inability to read occurring in an otherwise bright and developmentally normal child”.
It is estimated that around 5% of the population has some form of dyslexia.
A good definition of “Dyslexia” is…
Dyslexia is a language based learning disability.
Dyslexia refers to a cluster of symptoms, which result in people having difficulties with specific language skills, particularly reading.
Students with dyslexia usually experience difficulties with other language skills such as spelling, writing, and pronouncing words.
Dyslexia affects individuals throughout their lives; however, its impact can change at different stages in a person’s life.
It is referred to as a learning disability because dyslexia can make it very difficult for a student to succeed academically in the typical instructional environment.
In its more severe forms, will qualify a student for special education, special accommodations, or extra support services.
1 in 5 are Dyslexia
A large percentage of the population still do not understand what dyslexia is,
the difficulties which the condition presents and do not know how best to support them.
Dyslexia is not an obvious difficulty; it is hidden.
As a result, dyslexic people have to overcome numerous barriers to make a full contribution to society.
Dyslexia may become apparent in early childhood, with difficulty putting together sequences
(for example, coloured beads, days of week, numbers) and a family history of dyslexia or reading difficulties.
Toddlers may jumble words and phrases, forget the names of common objects,
have problems with rhyming or show slightly delayed speech development.
They may have never crawled (even if walking early) and have problems getting dressed,
putting shoes on the right feet and clapping rhythms.
At school, children may lack interest in letters and words, have problems with reading and spelling,
put letters and figures the wrong way round, be slow at written work and have poor concentration.
These problems persist as the child grows up, with poor reading, writing and spelling skills,
which can erode their self-esteem and confidence.
Severity of the Disability
The impact varies in individuals, depending on the severity of the disability, as well as the instructional methods used.
Young children with dyslexia have difficulty with phonological awareness, the ability to recognize and manipulate letter sounds.
This includes skills such as identifying beginning letter sounds like /c/ in cat, or words that rhyme, like cat and rat.
Reading problems can be due to a variety of factors, including behavioral or other disabilities that inhibit learning.
Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability.
While it is considered a specific reading disability, it can impact a variety of language skills, including spelling, writing and pronunciation.
It is considered a learning disability because it can affect academic success in the typical learning environment.
Some research has suggested there are differences in the brain development of someone with dyslexia, but this in no way affects intelligence or the ability to learn.
Some signs of Dyslexia:
- Child has difficulties sounding out words
- Slow laborious reading
- Reads without expression
- Ignores punctuation while reading out loud
- Guesses based on first letter of word
- Puts extra sounds into a word
- Drops syllables
- Reverses sounds
- Struggles with spelling
- Substitutes small common words
Children and Adults seem to suffer from a range of difficulties
that go way beyond literacy, including problems with:
- short-term memory
- Verbally Expressing Themselves
- social skills
Dyslexia can also affect